Table of contents:

Well insulated: 10 facts for your home
Well insulated: 10 facts for your home

Video: Well insulated: 10 facts for your home

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Video: WORLD'S MOST Airtight Residence // EXTREMELY ENERGY EFFICIENT! 2023, January
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Regardless of whether you turn on the television or open the daily newspaper: there is a lot of discussion about insulation. We have put together the most important aspects for you.

Table of contents Table of contents Well insulated: 10 facts for your home

  • 1. Thermal protection
  • 2. Save
  • 3. Comfort
  • 4. Plan
  • 5. Weather protection
  • 6. Summer heat
  • 7. Building technology
  • 8. Environment
  • 9. Optics
  • 10. Regulations

Table of contents Table of contents Well insulated: 10 facts for your home

  • 1. Thermal protection
  • 2. Save
  • 3. Comfort
  • 4. Plan
  • 5. Weather protection
  • 6. Summer heat
  • 7. Building technology
  • 8. Environment
  • 9. Optics
  • 10. Regulations

Of the more than 17 million German residential buildings, more than two thirds are ready for energy renovation. Nevertheless, the decision is often difficult - there is a modernization backlog. All measures must be well coordinated with each building. Because the worse the condition of the house, the more it is heated - and the greater the CO 2 emissions and energy costs. The energy consultant examines the building during an energy consultation and creates an energy certificate in which the necessary modernization measures are listed. Retrofitting is worthwhile, there are good reasons for it:

1. Thermal protection

After replacing the heat generator, insulation is the most effective measure to save energy. We use about 80 percent of the energy required in the house for heating. If the roof and facade are not adequately insulated, an average of 25 percent of the heating energy used flows outside uselessly - the colder it is outside, the more.

Heat loss through external components is what professionals call transmission. The insulation effect of a component is assessed with the U-value. It indicates the amount of heat that flows outside through a square meter of the component if the difference between inside and outside is a Kelvin (one degree Celsius). The smaller the value W / (m 2 K), the better the insulation effect. It is important that the insulation is complete, otherwise there are thermal bridges where more energy flows outside. They are colder on the room side than around them. The warm, moist room air cools down faster here, moisture liquefies on the wall - the risk of mold increases. Joints to the basement, around windows and doors, cantilevered balcony slabs are possible problem areas.

2. Save

The older the house, the higher the savings potential: If your heating costs are around 20 euros per square meter, it is worthwhile to insulate as a first step. How much does subsequent insulation of the roof and wall save? Rule of thumb: change the U-value times seven - you save as many liters of oil or cubic meters of gas per square meter and year. To assess the economic efficiency, the building as a whole must be viewed. Inquire about subsidies online, for example from the KfW or the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control.

3. Comfort

Are you shivering even though the radiator valves are open? It seems to pull even though all windows are closed? Whether we feel comfortable in a room depends on various factors, such as humidity, quality, temperature of the room air and ventilation. Experts speak of "thermal comfort". We find the room climate pleasant when the temperatures of the wall, floor, ceiling and window do not deviate from the room air temperature by more than four degrees Celsius. This is difficult to achieve, especially with old windows and poorly insulated walls. You not only feel the actual difference of four degrees Celsius, but feel it to be twice as strong. Example: If the outer wall has a U-value of 1.5 W / (m 2 K) and the room air has a temperature of 20 degrees Celsius, we are uncomfortable. Adequate ventilation is also important. Otherwise moisture and pollutants remain in the room - bad for your health, mold develops. A few minutes of rapid ventilation are sufficient to exchange the moist air. The indoor air should be completely replaced every two hours. This happens automatically and effortlessly with a ventilation system.

Frieren trotz Heizung
Frieren trotz Heizung

Are you shivering even though the radiator valves are open? New insulation can help.

Photo: fotolia / Karin & Uwe Annas

4. Plan

We modernize in cycles: the facade of a building is renovated on average after 35 years, the roof about every 40 years. If you renovate and insulate at the same time, there is a double benefit. You only pay once for scaffolding and setting up the construction site. The costs for energy-efficient renovation are reduced. The graphic below shows the amortization. If you plan to re-cover the roof or knock off the exterior plaster, the Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV) applies: If more than ten percent of a component is replaced, it dictates which U-values ​​the renovated component must achieve.

5. Weather protection

Façade insulation includes insulation boards, reinforcement mesh, plaster layers and top coat. The package acts as a protective wall for the facade and masonry. Rain, hail and snow are kept out - and great heat.

6. Summer heat

If the temperatures are above 30 degrees Celsius for days, it will also be hot in the house - especially under the roof. The EnEV therefore prescribes measures for "summer heat protection" for new buildings. These are also profitable in the existing building. The goal: to create a pleasant indoor climate and keep energy consumption for air conditioning units low. The structure of the components is important. Sufficiently dimensioned insulation is required, if possible on the outside, otherwise an interior insulation. It minimizes the transmission, that is the heat migration in both directions. Storage masses are required inside, i.e. solid walls and ceilings. Because these absorb heat gains during the day and slowly release them again in the evening, so they have a balancing effect.

7. Building technology

If motion detectors, sockets or lights are attached to the outer wall, the electrical installation breaks through, for example, vapor barrier and foils - the building envelope is therefore no longer airtight. Heat is lost through these leaks; in addition, the warm, moist room air can often penetrate into the wall construction - cool down there and release moisture. Before starting the modernization work, think about where you need installations. Talk to the energy consultant whether an additional installation layer is possible for the cable network. There are flush-mounted boxes with vapor barrier or insulation for cavity walls. Adhesive flanges are used for solid facades. You can mount devices such as lights on universal supports that do not create a thermal bridge.

8. Environment

Germany and the European Union are pursuing climate protection goals: By 2030, greenhouse gases are to be reduced by 40 percent (compared to the base year 1990). At the same time, energy efficiency and the share of renewable energies are to be increased by 27 percent each. This will only work if everyone joins in and switches to renewable energies.

9. Optics

With external insulation, you have the chance to give the facade a better look and to adjust proportions. Mineral plasters dry faster, and algae do not grow there at all.

10. Regulations

The currently valid EnEV stipulates that the top floor of existing buildings must be insulated to a maximum U-value of 0.24 W / (m 2 K). Exceptions: You have been living in the one- or two-family house yourself since February 2002. Then you only have to insulate when the owner changes, transition period: two years. If the roof is insulated above, the minimum thermal insulation is considered fulfilled. When renovating old buildings, renewed components may not exceed the U-values ​​specified in the EnEV. There was a tightening in 2016, but it only applies to new buildings.

Amoritätszeit
Amoritätszeit

Payback period: Insulation and renovation are in fact inseparable. If you consciously combine measures, you get a payback period of four to nine years for energy-related costs. Example: The full costs for 1 m 2 ETICS are approx. 120 € / m 2 (right arrow). The energy-related share is around 40 € / m 2 (left arrow).

Photo: Fotolia / FIW Munich 2014

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