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Window types and glazing: overview of construction methods
Window types and glazing: overview of construction methods

Video: Window types and glazing: overview of construction methods

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Video: Types of Windows | Windows | Building Construction 2023, February
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Specialists distinguish between window types and glazing according to the way in which the panes sit in the sash and can be opened. We present the most important types of windows.

Window types: types

Single windows are one of the most common types of windows (not to be confused with single glazing); they consist of casement and casement (s). The energy-saving glazing made of two or three panes sits in each wing - connected airtight.

Composite windows consist of separate outer and inner casements with simple glazing. The wings move on a common band, called a hinge, and hook together on the opposite side using a fitting. It can be released with a special key, then you can clean the inside of the panes. Because of the lower pane weight, composite windows can be built as slender lattice windows with traditional window partitions - in style, especially in old buildings.

Box windows have separate sashes on the inside and outside, which can be opened and closed separately. They sit at a distance of up to 15 centimeters in a circumferential lining, the entire component looks like a box. The outer wing usually opens to the outside, the inner wing to the room side, the wings can be equipped with different types of glazing: Often you choose thermal insulation glass for the outside, inexpensive single glazing for the inside. In listed buildings, the single glass is sometimes placed in the outer wing to preserve the pretty rungs. Box windows are popular because of their good sound and heat insulation.

Different window types can be opened

A distinction is also made between windows according to the possibility of opening the glazed casement:

  • Fixed glazing cannot be opened - the cheapest solution. Fixed glazing is used as facade decoration, combined with rotating window sashes in multi-part windows or as a skylight.
  • Swing blades rotate around a vertical axis on the left or right edge.
  • Tilting sashes have a lower horizontal axis and open a gap at the top. If the axle sits at the top, for example on a skylight, this is called a folding wing.
  • Tilt-and-turn sashes are among the most popular types of windows: the sash can be turned or tilted. On older models, you need both hands to fold the fitting, modern fittings allow one-handed operation.
  • Sliding windows and sliding doors are raised by turning the handle or swiveled out of the guide rail and can then be moved sideways.
  • Swinging windows rotate around a horizontal central axis, one part of the wing projects into the room, the other outside. If the window sash moves around a vertical axis, this is called a reversing window.
  • Combinations of several types of windows are possible, for example a double-leaf window with a fixed skylight and tilt-and-turn sashes, or a skylight for tilting with a lower part as a rotating sash. Whatever you choose, two points have priority: The window should be cleaned without climbing parts and the room should be ventilated.
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A distinction is also made between windows according to the possibility of opening the glazed window sashes: these can be opened and tilted inwards.

The dimensions of the glazing

The glazing of a room must be 1/8 to 1/3 of the floor space - there are no regulations for the size of the individual windows. Standard dimensions, also called preferred dimensions, are becoming less important for modern windows, according to the information service Wood: Fully automated also allows cost-effective custom-made products.

The module order in construction specifies standard dimensions for various construction products. However, many builders want individual houses and plan with special dimensions - if you want to save, choose the different windows of your house in the same dimensions and shapes - this results in a harmonious facade at the same time. The dimensions and profiling of the frame timbers, on the other hand, are standardized, which means that all types of windows can be manufactured inexpensively - even with special profiles, rung divisions and special shapes such as arched windows or triangles. Aluminum panels on the outside of the frame protect the wooden surface from the weather, thermal insulation materials in the core improve the energy balance.

The right glazing saves heating energy

The Energy Saving Ordinance EnEV includes the frame and glazing in the calculation of the primary energy requirement. New buildings and renovated old buildings are assessed as an overall system - planners and building owners are free to choose how they stay below the permissible maximum consumption values. Glazing with a low U value contribute to this.

Single glazing

One third of houses that have been around for 30 years or more are still real energy throwers - the U-value of the glazing is 5.8 W / (m² · K) (watts per square meter x Kelvin). The rungs of historical windows are often too delicate for thick and heavy insulating glass. The Wood Information Service advises: Where replacement is not possible, retrofitting to other types of windows, such as box windows, reduces energy consumption.

Fenster tauschen
Fenster tauschen

Houses that are older than 30 years = " are considered energy hurlers. The windows should be replaced here.

Photo: fotolia / Robert Kneschke

insulating glass

DIN 1259 Part 2 defines insulating glass as a glazing unit consisting of two glass panes that are separated from each other by an air or gas-filled space - optionally more than two glass surfaces are arranged one behind the other with spaces. At the edges, all panes are airtight and impervious to moisture due to sealing compounds, soldering or welding. A two-stage sealing system connects the edge:

  • Primary seal: A spacer profile made of metal or plastic holds two panes apart. An all-round butyl cord on both sides of the spacer acts as a water vapor and gas diffusion barrier.
  • Secondary seal: Polysulfide is applied between the two window edges over the back of the spacer profile. It connects the two panes permanently and seals the unit gas-tight.

2-pane insulating glazing

2-pane insulating glazing from the beginning has a U-value of 3.0 W / (m² · K), the U-value of modern panes is between 1.1 and 1.6 W / (m² · K), there are also windows with U-values ​​between 0.6 and 0.8 W / (m² · K). It is usually possible to retrofit old insulating glass windows with heat protection glass: improvements can be achieved with a rare gas filling in the space between the panes, a heat-reflecting coating on the inner pane or a larger pane spacing. Replacing metallic spacers with plastic webs also increases thermal insulation.

3-pane thermal insulation glazing

3-pane thermal insulation glazing is the ultimate when it comes to thermal insulation. At the moment we are working on a kind of super window, which sits in a thermally optimized wooden frame with a central insulation core. The goal is a U-value of 0.6 W / (m² · K) for the glazing and 0.8 W / (m² · K) or less for the entire window.

Sun protection glass

Sun protection windows have a wafer-thin layer of precious metal on the inside of the outer pane. Compared to conventional glazing such as insulating glass, this reduces the light transmission and at the same time increases the thermal insulation. However, no energy gains can be achieved that could be offset in the energy balance.

Soundproof glass

Glazing used for sound insulation combines panes of different thicknesses and weights with a larger space between panes. Sound insulation grows with the distance between panes. An effective soundproofing concept also includes other components such as a sophisticated frame construction and seal, reduced joint permeability and professional installation.

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