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Illuminants: Overview of bases, sockets and descriptions
Illuminants: Overview of bases, sockets and descriptions

Video: Illuminants: Overview of bases, sockets and descriptions

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Lamp Base Types 2023, February
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Since lightbulbs and halogen lamps have disappeared from the range for environmental reasons, there has been uncertainty: What other alternatives are there to LED lamps? Which lamp gives a nice atmospheric light? And what do the key figures on the packaging mean? We light up the darkness.

Everyone has come to believe that the light bulb has had its day. It was gradually withdrawn from circulation in 2009. Since 2018, halogen lamps have largely disappeared from the range of lamps. The LED lamp in particular has established itself as the illuminant of choice in our homes. We clarify which technologies you can invest in with confidence.

The electric lightbulb

At the end of the 19th century, Thomas Edison invented a simple and safe lamp. The electric light bulb is a powerful light source with an output of 25 to 60 watts. The light color of the light bulb is pleasantly warm with a color temperature of 2, 600 to 3, 000 Kelvin. Less than 150 years later, the euphoria has evaporated, because the average lifespan of a light bulb is just 1, 000 hours. Then it ends up in hazardous waste. In addition, their energy balance is a disaster to say the least. So it justifiably came to the final out of the light bulb.

This is how the light bulb works

Electricity flows into the base via a cable. Here, the current is conducted through the filament via holder wires. This causes the heating of the tungsten filament, which can reach a temperature of up to 2, 500 degrees Celsius. This makes the thin filament glow.

Advantage:

  • warm light
  • versatile in everyday use
  • dimmable

Disadvantage:

  • high energy consumption
  • short lifespan
  • Complete ban since 2012

The halogen lamp

Die Halogenlampe gibt es in zahlreichen Formen und Größen. Besonders bekannt sind die Varianten mit Stecksockeln (siehe Bild oben), als Schraubsockel kommen sie weniger häufig zum Einsatz
Die Halogenlampe gibt es in zahlreichen Formen und Größen. Besonders bekannt sind die Varianten mit Stecksockeln (siehe Bild oben), als Schraubsockel kommen sie weniger häufig zum Einsatz

The halogen lamp is available in numerous shapes and sizes. The versions with plug-in bases (see picture) are particularly well known; they are used less frequently as screw bases.

Photo: Osram

The halogen lamp is available in numerous shapes and sizes. The versions with plug-in bases are particularly well known, they are used less frequently as screw bases. In bathroom cabinets you can find them in the form of small plugs, for example, halogen spots are very popular in the living room. Its trademark is a particularly bright, white color temperature, which makes its light a little less homely. Although the halogen lamp is about 20% more economical than a light bulb and burns twice as long at 2000 hours, it still consumes 6 times more energy than an LED lamp. Halogen lamps were previously available in energy efficiency classes B to F; since 2018, only eco models in efficiency class B are allowed. These are available with a power of 7 to 60 watts and emit a bright white light with 3, 000 Kelvin.

This is how a halogen lamp works

The principle is very similar to that of the light bulb. However, the filament is surrounded by a halogen liquid, which ensures that the tungsten filament is not worn out as quickly.

Benefits:

  • white light for work areas or kitchen
  • various base types

Disadvantage:

  • High-voltage lamps prohibited from 2016
  • Low-voltage lamps also banned from 2018

Tip: There are now halogen lamps that give off a warm light color, for example the Osram HaloPin plug-in base lamp.

The fluorescent tube

Eine Leuchtstoffröhre ist genauer genommen eine Metalldampflampe, die von innen mit einem fluoreszierenden Leuchtstoff beschichtet ist
Eine Leuchtstoffröhre ist genauer genommen eine Metalldampflampe, die von innen mit einem fluoreszierenden Leuchtstoff beschichtet ist

Strictly speaking, a fluorescent tube is a metal vapor lamp which is coated on the inside with a fluorescent fluorescent substance.

Photo: Osram

The fluorescent tube has a bad reputation. It is considered a sterile, flickering office light. Their color brightness is between 3, 300 and 5, 300 Kelvin; that is comparatively bright. Thanks to modern technology and numerous color variations, the light tube is now also found in private homes. With 10, 000 hours, the fluorescent tube is very durable. However, it works less environmentally friendly because it uses toxic mercury to shine. With the entry into force of the new EU mercury regulation since 2018, it can therefore be expected that fluorescent tubes as well as halogen lamps will slowly be withdrawn from circulation

This is how a fluorescent tube works:

Strictly speaking, a fluorescent tube is a metal vapor lamp which is coated on the inside with a fluorescent fluorescent substance. When switched on, mercury vapor is released, which emits UV light. The fluorescent coating converts the UV light into light that is visible to us. Modern fluorescent tubes are equipped with electronic ballasts so that no flickering is noticed.

The advantages:

  • all light colors possible, from cold to warm
  • space-saving
  • bright light
  • well suited for plants and aquariums
  • Low energy consumption
  • long lifetime

The disadvantages:

  • conditionally dimmable
  • contains mercury
  • Full brightness only after a few seconds
  • EU mercury regulation since 2018 restricts sales

Tip: Osram offers fluorescent tubes with efficiency class A for just under 3 euros.

The energy saving lamp

Energiesparlampen funktionieren nach dem Prinzip von Leuchtstoffröhren. Dabei verbrauchen sie weniger Energie und habe eine längere Lebensdauer
Energiesparlampen funktionieren nach dem Prinzip von Leuchtstoffröhren. Dabei verbrauchen sie weniger Energie und habe eine längere Lebensdauer

Energy saving lamps work on the principle of fluorescent tubes. They use less energy and have a longer lifespan.

Photo: Paulmann

Few people know that an energy-saving lamp is basically a small version of the fluorescent tube, which is why it is also called a compact fluorescent lamp. Of course, this also means that it contains mercury. Due to their small size, the amount is much smaller than that of their "big brother". Since 2012, the official rule has been that an energy-saving lamp must not contain more than 2.5 milligrams of mercury. Their advantage is obvious: an energy-saving lamp uses 80% less electricity than a halogen or incandescent lamp and shines over a period of 15, 000 hours. Various color temperatures between 2, 700 and 6, 000 Kelvin are commercially available, making the energy-saving lamp also suitable as atmosphere light.

This is how an energy saving lamp works:

Energy saving lamps work on the principle of fluorescent tubes. They use less energy and have a longer lifespan.

Benefits:

  • all light colors possible, from cold to warm
  • all common base types available
  • Low energy consumption
  • very long life
  • medium to high light intensity

Disadvantage:

  • conditionally dimmable
  • contains mercury
  • is slowly getting light

Tip: Paulmann offers 10 x E27 energy-saving lamps with efficiency class A in a package for just under 19 euros.

The LED lamp

In der Produktion sind LED-Lampen aufwendiger als Glühbirnen und erfordern seltene Rohstoffe
In der Produktion sind LED-Lampen aufwendiger als Glühbirnen und erfordern seltene Rohstoffe

In production, LED lamps are more complex than light bulbs and require rare raw materials.

Photo: Philips

The energy-saving lamp is often confused with LED lamps - this is because both work particularly energy-efficiently. The LED lamp is even ahead in terms of power consumption. That is about 90% below that of a conventional light bulb. Why some still choose the energy-saving lamp is mainly due to the slightly higher purchase price. In the long term, however, the investment in an LED lamp pays off: the lifespan is 15, 000 to 25, 000 hours. There is the LED light with all common base types. For example, today a halogen spotlight can also be equipped with GU10 LED spotlights or the fluorescent tube can be replaced by an LED tube lamp.

Do LED lamps also have disadvantages? In production, LED lamps are more complex than light bulbs and require rare raw materials. However, according to the Osram study, only 2% of the total energy balance is to be attributed to the production process.

This is how the LED lamp works:

Put simply, the LED works like an energetic firefly. The only difference is in the way the atoms are set in motion inside. A crystal with oppositely charged sides appears in the LED lamp. One side has an excess of electrodes, the other a shortage. If the crystal is operated in the forward direction, the excess electrons flow to the other side. This is perceptible in the form of light.

Benefits:

  • all light colors possible, from cold to warm
  • all common base types
  • lowest energy consumption
  • very long life
  • medium to high light intensity
  • dimmable

Disadvantage:

  • First purchase more expensive
  • Production requires the mining of rare raw materials

Tip: A three-pack of E27 LEDs from Philips costs around 15 euros.

What do the numbers and symbols on the packaging of the lamps mean?

Lamps in Europe have had to be labeled with the EU energy label since 2014. The label indicates the efficiency that consumers have known from refrigerators and other household appliances for years. LED bulbs usually rank in the recommended ranges A to A +, conventional light bulbs mostly between D and E. This means that with LEDs with the same brightness, about 80 to 90 percent less electricity is used than with incandescent lamps. Halogen lamps are mostly in classes B and C.

Etikettenkunde Leuchtmittel
Etikettenkunde Leuchtmittel

LED lamps are not only efficient, they also offer many other technical options for designing light in the home. For this reason, legislators are encouraging manufacturers and retailers to list additional information beyond the energy label. The example shows a sample of what such a label can look like and explains what character the light has, what technical properties and how long it will last. This is very useful given the great variety on the LED market. If in doubt, you can find more details on the websites of the manufacturers and dealers.

The most important values ​​briefly explained

Kelvin for the color temperature:

Each light has a specific color temperature that can be measured in Kelvin. For example, a warm, yellow candlelight has a value of 1, 500 Kelvin. The cool blue light of a cloudy sky has a value of 7, 000 Kelvin. The lower the Kelvin value, the warmer the light appears. Illuminants are divided into three categories:

  • less than 3, 300 Kelvin warm white
  • 3, 300–5, 300 neutral white
  • greater than 5, 300 daylight white

Lux / lumens for brightness:

The value for lux or lumen is also marked on each lamp. This determines the brightness of the light. A light bulb can produce between 2500 and 3000 lumens at an output of 200 watts. An LED generates 3500 to 4000 watt lumens with a power of only 50 watts.

Watts for power consumption:

The wattage indicates the power consumption of a lamp at a specified voltage. A 50-watt halogen lamp consumes more than a 14-watt energy-saving lamp or a 5-watt LED lamp.

The brightness of LED lights is proportional to the current supplied. This means that the light-emitting diode lights up brightly even with a low power supply.

Conclusion: which illuminant to choose?

In the end, the LED bulb stands out as a future-proof lamp. This is because they are available in a wide variety of sizes and color temperatures, their light is dimmable and their power consumption is lower than that of an energy-saving lamp. Even if LEDs are more complex to produce, the energy balance is balanced by a long lifespan of almost 25 years. The best alternative to the LED bulb is the energy-saving lamp. It is still 80% more economical than a light bulb and contains a small amount of mercury. Please note, however, that both LEDs and energy-saving lamps for the environment have to be disposed of at separate collection points.

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