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Stove: You should take these rules into account
Stove: You should take these rules into account
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Are you thinking of buying a stove? There are many reasons for this! Because the "good old stove" comes today with optimized technology and a new design that fits modern facilities. In addition, stoves create a lot of atmosphere in the room.

Table of contents Table of contents stove: You should take these rules into account

  • There are these types of tiled stoves
  • This is how a stove works
  • Lining for the stove: heating with wood and pellets
  • 1. Types of wood and their burning properties
  • 2. Heating with pellets in stoves
  • 3. Fireplaces are not waste incineration plants
  • Buying a stove: which model suits me?
  • Rules for handling the stove
  • The stove dictionary
  • The care and proper maintenance
  • Advantage of the stove - the good ecological balance
  • An expert gives tips for buying a stove

Table of contents Table of contents stove: You should take these rules into account

  • There are these types of tiled stoves
  • This is how a stove works
  • Lining for the stove: heating with wood and pellets
  • 1. Types of wood and their burning properties
  • 2. Heating with pellets in stoves
  • 3. Fireplaces are not waste incineration plants
  • Buying a stove: which model suits me?
  • Rules for handling the stove
  • The stove dictionary
  • The care and proper maintenance
  • Advantage of the stove - the good ecological balance
  • An expert gives tips for buying a stove

When the days get shorter and colder, a stove not only provides pleasant warmth, but also transforms the living room into a cozy and romantic place. Stoves consist of a large firebox made of cast metal, lined with chamotte on the inside, sometimes with ceramic plates on the outside. In addition to metal, soapstone is used as the stove material. The flue gases go directly into the chimney through a stovepipe. The stovepipe also heats the room air. Stoves give off convection heat, less radiant heat. The advantages are clear: relatively light weight and choice of stand. Multiple assignments to a chimney are also possible if the stove has a self-closing fire door. If the stove is also operated openly, it needs its own chimney.

There are these types of tiled stoves

There are two types of tiled stoves. If you know the effect, choosing a stove is easier.

The basic oven

It is the original design of the storage heater. The tiled stove set by the tiled stove builder consists of a combustion chamber (made of tiles or chamotte) and the heating gas flues as well as - purely externally - individual glazed tiles or plastered. If the basic furnace is heated, the combustion gases heat the fireclay bricks and tiles. It takes about two hours until then. The primary furnace mainly emits radiant heat that warms the walls, floor, people and animals. The air is not heated.

Advantage: longer heat emission, no dry room air

Disadvantage: long heating time, high furnace weight

Warm air tiled stove

The combustion chamber of the warm air tiled stove consists of an industrially manufactured heating insert, which is located in a tiled jacket or plastered surface, the so-called heating chamber. The gases generated during heating operation pull through the heating gas fume cupboards and thus heat the tiles. Room air enters the heating chamber through openings in the tile jacket, sweeps past the heating insert, heats up and flows back into the room through openings in the tile jacket (convection heat). The tiles also emit radiant heat.

Advantage: faster heating of the room, less furnace weight, operation with oil or gas possible

Disadvantage: high convection heat content, lower radiant heat

Connection to the chimney

DIN 18891 specifies whether the stove can be connected to the existing chimney or requires its own vent. A basic stove can be connected to the existing chimney, because the stoves have self-closing doors. The firebox is therefore always closed - except for lighting and adding fuel. The warm air tiled stove, however, can be operated with the door open or closed. To do this, however, he needs his own vent.

Attention: There are separate rules for particularly old stoves. Under certain circumstances, they may no longer be operated after a certain point in time.

This is how a stove works

Wood-burning stoves quickly provide additional heating or transition heating in spring or autumn. The firebox made of firebricks or insulating material made of ceramic plastic is encased in steel or cast iron, while a door with a glass pane provides a view of the fire. The heat is stored in a dress made of tiles or soapstone and 60 percent is emitted as convection heat and 40 percent as radiant heat. Some models can be combined with central heating and a solar system via water registers, some are even suitable as heating on their own. The compact parts take up little space and are only connected to the house with a smoke pipe, some also with a combustion air duct.

The heat output is chosen according to whether you really want to heat - or just warm your mind. The heating technician calculates the required heating output from the living space, the insulation level of the walls and the airtightness of the building. According to one, about one kilowatt of power is required for every eight to ten square meters of living space.

The fireplace room needs at least 12 square meters, because a kilogram of wood needs nine to twelve cubic meters of air to burn. If the windows are tight and the rooms are thickly insulated, the room air does not provide replenishment - external combustion air is thus sucked in via pipes or sockets.

Preheated primary air flows from below into the combustion chamber for heating, through ducts in the furnace floor. The fire needs a lot of oxygen - this is drawn from the room and the chimney or fed through combustion air nozzles in order to properly crank the combustion. The fire temperature must rise as quickly as possible to around 1000 to 1200 degrees at the beginning (observe instructions for use). The fuel begins to glow.

In the middle combustion phase, less and less primary air flows in from below, eventually dries up completely. The oxygen is now supplied from above via a filling door and heated to approximately 300 degrees. This secondary air mixes with the hot combustion gases and ignites them, thus ensuring constant combustion. A deflection stone or plate keeps the gases in the combustion chamber for longer - this promotes burnout, optimizes efficiency and reduces harmful emissions.

As soon as the wood (actually the gases in the wood) is almost burned, the temperature in the combustion chamber drops, the secondary air supply is throttled and primary air is re-introduced from below. The logs burn completely, leaving only fine white ash.

Lining for the stove: heating with wood and pellets

Wood heaters are fired with solid fuels such as firewood or wood and coal briquettes or pellets. The stove is integrated into the central heating system with a water-bearing heating insert, it then supports or replaces conventional gas or oil heating systems.

There are also gas stoves: they work at the push of a button, with LPG from a bottle or a natural gas connection; they give fire joy without effort - but also without wood scent and crackling.

1. Types of wood and their burning properties

Kaminofen mit Holz heizen
Kaminofen mit Holz heizen

The advantages of wood as a fuel are obvious: as a renewable raw material, it is available in our forests at all times.

Photo: living4media / Cecilla Möller

Not every wood is suitable as firewood. The different types of wood differ in their burning properties. For example, softwoods such as fir, spruce or pine burn quickly and quickly bring tiled stoves to the correct operating temperature. However, they are less suitable for open fireplaces because their high proportion of resin and fats leads to strong sparking.

Hardwoods, on the other hand, are very popular with fireplace owners. They burn more slowly and more evenly than conifers. The most sought-after firewood is beech, which creates a beautiful flame pattern and only sparks little. It ensures long-lasting warmth - ideal for cozy evenings. In turn, oak burns without unusual flames, but very slowly. It is therefore often used in tiled stoves. The birch, which is also suitable as a kindling, ensures a quiet crackle in the living room.

2. Heating with pellets in stoves

Wood pellets are small cylindrical pellets made from natural wood, primarily from sawdust and wood shavings. No foreign substances such as glue or plastics may be used in the pressing. Wood pellets are produced under high pressure and have a calorific value of 4.9 kWh / kg, which corresponds approximately to that of half a liter of heating oil. A former oil tank room, a bag silo or underground tank is suitable for storage. The storage room must be protected against moisture and dustproof.

3. Fireplaces are not waste incineration plants

You must not burn lacquered, treated, glued, bonded wood and paper briquettes, cardboard and packaging! These materials release harmful substances that are harmful to health. The deposits on the chimney and in the furnace also reduce performance, damage the fireplace and must be removed.

Buying a stove: which model suits me?

A tiled or fireplace stove is a permanent purchase. Before you buy a stove, you should therefore consider which type of construction best suits you. We list a few critical questions that can help you make the right decision:

Purpose: Which tasks should the stove take on: cozy atmosphere for the living room or new main, additional or transition heating? This results in the right heating output.

Permit: Are you even allowed to operate a solid fuel fireplace? The building office of the city or municipality provides information.

Safety: can you connect the stove to the existing chimney? The chimney sweep provides information and takes the stove off after installation. You save yourself trouble with the insurance.

Air: Where does the stove get the combustion air from? Ask whether a supply independent of ambient air is necessary - in a building with an airtight outer skin, such as a passive house, you have to feed in the combustion air from outside.

Fuel: where does the fuel come from? How much wood or briquettes does the stove need per day? Where do you get supplies from? Is there a suitable wood store in the house or apartment?

Location: Where should the stove be? The heat rays only reach where you can see the stove. Observe the safety distance from furniture. A striking sculpture needs enough space to convince. Round or semicircular stoves fit almost anywhere, give a clear view of the fire, but need space. There are special corner stoves for room corners or projections.

Comfort: is there automatic control? It simplifies operation, ensures sufficient primary and secondary air - and that optimizes combustion and heating effectiveness. Is there a suitable base plate? After all, the carpet or parquet should not suffer any damage. Washer provided? Otherwise the glass will quickly become black and unsightly.

Practice: Does the handle get hot? Don't forget gloves. How big is the ash pan? Before you can remove the ashes, they must cool completely, which can take up to 24 hours. The container should be large enough to hold several loads of firewood.

Maintenance: How easy are maintenance and cleaning? Sliding doors can block, the seals wear out quickly. To clean an ash pan, you need a vacuum cleaner with a suitable attachment.

Quality: Does the model meet the DIN regulations, has it been awarded a quality label? Has the stove been processed well? Visible weld seams, crooked connections or a faulty surface spoil the pleasure. Check the combustion chamber for cracks and good workmanship.

Service: Is there a guarantee for spare parts? Seals, handles and washers wear out after a few years. Is there a manufacturer's customer service center near you? You should screw around the stove as little as possible.

Self-help: Can you replace wear parts, such as seals, yourself? This saves waiting time until the heating engineer has a free appointment.

Kachelofen
Kachelofen

Tiled stoves are an expensive purchase, which is why you should carefully consider the color selection.

Photo: living4media / Peter Raider

Rules for handling the stove

Before you buy a stove, you should bear in mind that both the installation and the operation of fireplaces are subject to approval and are subject to regulations. Your chimney sweep knows the guidelines for the construction of open fireplaces best. He is the first point of contact before going to the building office. It checks compliance with these provisions during an annual inspection visit. In the event of violations, there is a hefty fine.

We have the most important provisions at a glance:

  • Open fireplaces must not be installed in rooms or apartments that are ventilated by ventilation systems or fan heaters.
  • No electrical cables may run in the wall behind the fireplace and on the ceiling above the fireplace opening.
  • If the chimney apron reaches the ceiling, flammable ceiling cladding must be particularly fire-protected.
  • All components must be made of non-combustible, dimensionally stable material. This also applies to the floor covering in front of the fireplace (safety area at least 50 centimeters to the front and 30 centimeters on both sides.
  • The floor under the fireplace must have at least a six centimeter thick concrete ceiling and a ten centimeter thick insulation layer.
  • Load-bearing walls to which the fireplace or stove is attached must not warm up by more than 50 degrees Celsius; special thermal insulation may be required.
  • Flammable furniture such as carpets or tables must be at least 80 centimeters from the fireplace.

The stove dictionary

So that you can get basic information before buying a stove, we have collected the most important terms for heating with wood:

  • Ash box or ash drawer: catches the ash, can be completely removed and emptied, saves fiddling with the shovel in the combustion chamber.
  • Floor plate: Protects carpets and parquet and other flammable floor coverings. Must protrude at least 50 centimeters in front and at least 20 centimeters laterally over the firebox opening. Follow the instructions.
  • Ethanol fireplace: license-free, does not need a chimney. When ethanol is burned, water vapor and carbon dioxide are produced, but no smoke.
  • Fire or combustion chamber: Lined with fireproof stones such as chamotte or insulating material such as vermiculite, Skamolex, Skamol.
  • Heating cassette: consists of a heating insert with a glass pane. Transforms the open fireplace: heat is no longer wasted through the chimney. Improves heat yield by 60 percent.
  • Heating output: Specification in kilowatts (kW). For every eight to ten square meters of living space, you need about one kilowatt of power.
  • Calorific value: heat that is released by completely burning a fuel.
  • Tiled stove: Are expensive pieces of jewelry, firmly connected to the house. Think carefully about color choice. Efficiency: up to 90 percent.
  • Convection oven: Mostly double-walled. The warm air flows through special air ducts and is distributed evenly throughout the room. At the same time, cold air is drawn in and also warmed. Oven surfaces don't get that hot.
  • Open fireplace: combustion chamber without door. Nice play of flames, pleasant patter, sparks, little heating power: up to 80 percent of the energy disappears unused through the chimney. Efficiency around 20 percent.
  • Single pellet stove: Looks like wood -burning stoves and is heated with pellets, i.e. compressed wood scraps. The daily requirement is in a fuel container on or in the furnace.
  • Pellet boiler: standing in the basement, heating the whole house. You need a storage room for the pellets and a screw conveyor that automatically loads the boiler.
  • Primary air: flows into the lower part of the combustion chamber during the heating phase. Is sucked in by draft in the chimney.
  • Smoke pipe: connecting piece from the stove to the chimney. Can be behind the stove or face up. Discharges smoke to the chimney.
  • Room air-dependent: The stove takes the combustion air from the room in which it is located. Does not work in conjunction with a ventilation system or new sealed windows. A differential pressure controller, ventilation and stove can be operated at the same time.
  • Independent of room air: The combustion air is supplied from outside via pipes.
  • Window rinsing : keeps the glass pane clear. Part of the combustion air is directed along the window, soot particles cannot get stuck.
  • Secondary air: Is introduced over the fire during normal burning - to completely burn the flue gases.
  • Radiant area: tiles, natural stone, which give off energy as heat radiation. Is perceived as particularly pleasant.
  • Radiant oven : The heat radiates directly from the oven, to the front and to the side. The surfaces become very hot. A large distance to furniture and combustible material is required.
  • Combustion air: Every fire needs a sufficient amount of oxygen - otherwise the fuel cannot burn completely, the heat output drops, soot and carbon monoxide can develop.
  • Combustion air supply, external: In the past, air came into the house through leaky windows and door slits. But modern windows and the building envelope keep tight. Today air is supplied from outside via fresh air ducts, combustion air nozzles or combustion air ducts. Easy to install when the stove is on an outside wall. Otherwise air ducts will be laid under the floor. The ducts must be closed when the stove is not working so that cold air does not flow into the room.
  • Warm air oven: The heating insert roars in a tiled jacket. Room air moves through the cavity in the stove, heats up heat, and flows back into the room at the top. Swipes along the ceiling, sinks to the floor and slips coolly back into the oven. Indoor air gets warm, surfaces stay cooler.
  • Water-bearing heating insert: Usually consists of cast iron or steel plus a heat exchanger. The fireplace is heated, water is heated and fed into the heating network; the stove in the living room supplies the radiators in adjacent rooms. Excess energy is collected in a buffer storage and released again when necessary.
  • Efficiency: The ratio between the energy used (i.e. the amount of wood) and the energy released (i.e. heating) is given in percent. The better the ratio, the higher the efficiency of the furnace. From 75 percent efficiency, one speaks of a good stove. It heats economically, saves fuel and protects the environment.
Kaminofen für Ihr Zuhause kaufen
Kaminofen für Ihr Zuhause kaufen

You can dispose of the ashes from the stove in the residual waste or use them as fertilizer in the garden.

Photo: living4media / Annette Nordstrom

The care and proper maintenance

With these tricks, your stove will remain beautiful and functional for a long time:

Daily or weekly cleaning: Make sure the stove is cold. Because even 24 hours after the fire has gone out, embers are sometimes still hidden in the ashes. Pull the ash box out of the fireplace, pull a plastic or waste bag over it, turn the box upside down and carefully pull it out of the bag. Dispose of ash in the residual waste or use it as fertilizer in the garden.

Once a year you should thoroughly and thoroughly clean the oven, preferably after the heating period. Because stubborn ash residues and soot can build up in the combustion chamber and the joints under the ash pan. They can be loosened with a vacuum cleaner. There is also a cleaning opening per smoke tube knee. Unscrew and clean the flue pipe with a brush or a hand brush. Clean the outside of the oven with a soft cloth, a hand brush or with a vacuum cleaner - with a narrow nozzle or a soft brush.

An inspection by a specialist is recommended every two years. This cleans the stove thoroughly, checks seals on the door, panes and ashtray, lubricates the hinges with copper grease and checks the combustion chamber for cracks.

Advantage of the stove - the good ecological balance

While the open fireplace is still a popular decorative element, modern heating chimneys and tiled stoves are increasingly being used as a supplement to the heating system. The advantages of wood as a fuel are obvious: as a renewable raw material, it is available in our forests at all times.

In contrast to oil and gas, the burning of wood only releases as much carbon dioxide (CO 2) as the tree absorbed during its growth. Wood is therefore a particularly environmentally friendly fuel. Of course, this only applies if untreated wood is burned. Chipboard, plywood remains or lacquered wood have no place in chimneys and stoves. Paper and cardboard, especially in printed form, are also not approved fuels. Even for firing, it is better to use thinly split logs, preferably made of softwood. If everything is done correctly, the fire will only leave greyish-white ash and soot-free furnace walls.

An expert gives tips for buying a stove

Achim Heckel, Bundesverband des Schornsteinfegerhandwerks
Achim Heckel, Bundesverband des Schornsteinfegerhandwerks

Interview with Achim Heckel from the Federal Association of Chimney Sweeps.

Photo: www.schornsteinfeger.de

Achim Heckel from the Federal Association of the Chimney Sweep Trade Central Guild Association gives practical tips:

What permits do you need if you want to set up a stove?

You should first ask the municipality whether there is a general ban on burning solid fuels such as wood. Some municipalities prohibit heating with wood in order to reduce the emission of fine dust. However, these prohibitions make little sense, since wood burns CO 2 -neutral if used correctly. This means that when wood is burned, only as much carbon dioxide is released as with natural rotting. This makes this material an ecologically extremely valuable fuel.

Should you coordinate the purchase of a stove with the chimney sweep?

In any case. He checks whether an additional heat generator can be connected to the chimney in addition to the existing oil or gas heating. Or whether an individual connection would be possible.

When do you need an additional extractor for the stove?

If there is a so-called forced draft burner of the type mentioned above. This means when the air required for the combustion process is sucked in by a fan and then conveyed into the combustion chamber. The extraction of the flue gas from the stove would be disturbed, which could result in the flue gas entering the stove's installation room under unfavorable influences. The consequence would be a dangerous CO concentration for the residents.

How high should the chimney be?

A rule of thumb is: at least 4.5 meters, measured from the top edge of the connection to the chimney. It is better to consult the chimney sweep for advice. He can calculate exactly which stove fits the existing chimney.

What should you watch out for when choosing a stove?

The most important criterion is the CE mark. This means that the stove has been approved for the European market. The stove must not be installed without the CE mark. In addition, you should take a closer look above all at very cheap products: The door should look as stable as possible. The firebox should be lined with chamotte or a similar material. If it is not, too much energy is lost and the stove has poor exhaust gas values.

Can you install the new stove yourself?

Stoves should only be installed by professionals. If you make mistakes here, you can destroy the chimney - and that will be expensive. In old chimneys, for example, there are air chambers that are used for insulation. They look like the inside of the chimney, but are closed at the top. So there is no deduction. A layperson does not recognize the difference and may connect the stove incorrectly.

Where in the house can you place the stove?

Basically, the stove can be set up anywhere. It is important to pay attention to fire protection. Furniture and carpets should not be too close to the fireplace and the flue pipe - a distance is recommended which is specified by the manufacturers. However, the applicable building law must be observed. In addition, a floor plate on the fireplace protects the flooring. It is very important to always ventilate the room sufficiently. If an extractor hood is installed, it removes the necessary oxygen. Therefore, the windows must be opened regularly while the fireplace is in operation. This can be regulated automatically by taking measures on the extractor hood

How often should the stove be checked?

The chimney is cleaned at least once a year and weaknesses can be identified. A detailed inspection of the furnace takes place five years after the installation.

What typical mistakes can you avoid?

The wrong fuel is often used. Stoves users should be careful to burn air-dry wood. Otherwise so-called gloss soot can form. These are the finest droplets of tar that burn onto the walls of the fireplace and thus form a lacquer-like layer. If wood is added, sparks fly and the soot can ignite itself. Gloss black burns very hot very quickly. If the fire goes unnoticed, the fireplace and the building can be seriously damaged.

However, some people misuse the stove as a private waste incineration plant. This is bad for the chimney and the environment. In addition, there may be trouble with the neighbors due to the smell development. Newspapers, paper and cardboard also have no place in the fire. Burning paper can fall out of the firebox and damage the floor, furniture or curtains.

It can also happen that too much wood is packed in the fireplace. In this case, there is not enough oxygen in the fire.

Basically, everyone should read the instructions for the fireplace carefully and ask their chimney sweep for advice. Ultimately, the latter must also remove the fireplace, because without acceptance there is no insurance cover.

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