Table of contents:

Find building plot: tips and checklists
Find building plot: tips and checklists
Video: Find building plot: tips and checklists
Video: 10 THINGS TO KNOW BEFORE BUYING LAND 2023, February
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If you want to find a building plot, in most cases contact a local property developer. However, the property purchase is often linked to the purchase of an already planned property and you have only a limited say in the design of the building. In addition, building plots are also sold by municipalities or private owners. Here you can read how to find the right building plot for your own home and what you should pay attention to when buying land.

Table of contents Table of contents How to find a building plot: Important tips and checklists

  • Check the building plot for buildability
  • Specifications of the development plan
  • Soil assessment creates security
  • Checklist for the soil properties of the building plot
  • Contaminated sites on the property
  • Check the location of the building plot and the infrastructure
  • Checklist for the location of the building plot
  • Development and network quality
  • Checklist for the development of the building plot
  • View the land register entry of the building plot
  • The purchase contract and additional costs for the building plot
  • The measurement of the building plot: effort and costs
  • This is how a typical measurement process works

Table of contents Table of contents How to find a building plot: Important tips and checklists

  • Check the building plot for buildability
  • Specifications of the development plan
  • Soil assessment creates security
  • Checklist for the soil properties of the building plot
  • Contaminated sites on the property
  • Check the location of the building plot and the infrastructure
  • Checklist for the location of the building plot
  • Development and network quality
  • Checklist for the development of the building plot
  • View the land register entry of the building plot
  • The purchase contract and additional costs for the building plot
  • The measurement of the building plot: effort and costs
  • This is how a typical measurement process works
  • In order to find a building plot as it is for sale, you should search the relevant real estate portals on the Internet as well as the advertising pages of the regional newspapers. There you will also find information on real estate auctions and foreclosures.
  • Ask your municipality directly whether there are still areas that can be built on or whether the development of a new building area is planned. If so, you should inquire whether a finished development plan already exists and whether you can view it. In such cases, it makes sense to express your interest in a suitable property at an early stage.
  • In addition to real estate, brokers often also have a small selection of building plots on offer. But they also help you find the right building plot and support you until the contract is signed - of course for a fee.
  • Many financial institutions have their own real estate department and also offer their properties on the Internet. Or you can search for properties in your desired region on the Sparkassen-Immobilien website.
  • Listen to people you know - not every property that is to be sold is also publicly advertised.
  • Search specifically for vacant lots in your desired region: To do this, it is best to first look at Google Maps, where there are undeveloped plots within a built-up area. Then inspect the property on site and it is best to find out from the residents who the owner is. With this, you simply ask whether the property is for sale.

Check the building plot for buildability

Once a beautiful building plot has been found, the future owner is faced with the question of whether the property can be built on at all. Check whether it is designated building land according to §30 or §34 of the Building Code (BauBG), which is suitable for the construction of a home without restriction. If the building plot is not in a designated building area, you should send a preliminary building request to your municipality. The building authority provides you with legally binding information on the buildability of the property. If it is only a so-called building expectation country, you should rather not buy it. In the long term, these areas are planned as building land in the municipality's land use plan, but there is still no development plan. The realization of your project could be delayed for years.

Specifications of the development plan

If there is a legally valid development plan for the property, the client knows what to expect. This plan often regulates the subtleties from the ground floor and floor height to the pitch of the roof, from the number of storeys to the ridge alignment, type and color of the roof. Some development plans also only make minimal specifications: Often you can even build a Swedish house next to a Tuscan country house. Each community can determine how uniform the development should be in the development plan. Basically, the lower the demand for building plots in a municipality, the greater the freedom of design for the property.

Soil assessment creates security

Unfavorable soil conditions can result in considerable costs. High groundwater levels, bog remains in the subsoil, flying sand or fillings from earlier times require additional measures such as a pile foundation for better stability or special sealing measures on the building. If in doubt, get a floor report before buying. There are indications of problems if, for example, the groundwater is close to the surface, if stratified water flows in the subsurface or the ground appears to be unsustainable. This would make the foundation and the basement construction much more expensive. For a soil appraisal, you have to calculate costs in the amount of 800 to 2, 000 euros. A soil appraisal is less important if the property is in the area of ​​a legally binding development plan, because here the building site in critical locations has usually been checked in advance.

Checklist for the soil properties of the building plot

  • What type of floor is it?
  • Are there impermeable layers?
  • Can organic inclusions be expected?
  • Was there any backfill on the property? If yes: when and what?
  • Is the property in the area of ​​geological faults?
  • How deep is the groundwater and do you have to expect fluctuations in the groundwater?
  • Does layer water or pressing water occur?
  • Is the building land flooded at times?
  • Was there any business on the property in the past? If so, which?
  • Have building rubble, fuel, oil, paints, chemicals, production waste or household waste been stored on the site?
  • Do you have to expect to find remnants of weapons on the property?
  • Are fires or accidents known?
Abwasserrohr
Abwasserrohr

Be sure to check for contaminated sites. If the property was previously used for commercial purposes, it is more likely that the soil will be contaminated.

Photo: iStock / Armastas

Contaminated sites on the property

Before buying the property, check whether there are any contaminated sites in the floor of the building plot. Especially if your building site is located in one place. Contaminated sites can be traced back to previous industrial or commercial use. Find out from the environmental and water authorities or from the state contaminated land registers about the previous use of the site. If the area was used for commercial purposes, it may be advisable to have a soil survey carried out. If the area is contaminated by oil or building rubble, for example, the cleaning costs per cubic meter must also be taken into account. The Federal Soil Protection Act regulates who bears these costs in individual cases. In addition, the property may no longer be available as financing security, since contaminated sites can greatly reduce its value.

Before buying a property, find out whether the region was badly bombed in World War II. Especially in industrial centers such as the Ruhr area, the Stuttgart area and the Rhine-Main area, there is a high risk that unexploded bombs still lie in the ground, which must be recovered and defused beforehand with a lot of effort. If in doubt, have the building site checked with a soil probe - this makes it easy to discover small and large metal residues.

Sometimes the soil pollution comes from the neighboring property. The neighbor then not only has to remove the pollutants, but also to restore the original condition of the property (BGH judgment, February 4, 2005, 5 ZR 142/04). In principle, however, the current owner is always responsible for the disposal of contaminated sites. Since renovation is often expensive, you can write off your construction project for tax purposes. Claims for recourse against the seller are generally only enforceable if they have been expressly agreed in the purchase contract.

Check the location of the building plot and the infrastructure

Inspect the surrounding area several times a week to check the volume of traffic - preferably at different times. If industrial companies are located in the vicinity of the property or if aircraft, train or street noise impair the quality of living, the value of the building plot is reduced. Make sure you have a plot of land in a quiet area with easy access to public transportation. Shops, schools, doctors, cultural and leisure facilities should also be nearby. The local building and environmental authorities will tell you whether there are any major construction projects in the near future.

Baugrundstück
Baugrundstück

If the building plot is not in a designated building area, you should send a preliminary building request to your municipality.

Photo: Fotolia / Kaarsten

Checklist for the location of the building plot

  • How do you rate the character of the settlement area? Does the environment make a neat impression or does the neighborhood seem shabby?
  • Do you notice odor or noise pollution (road, train, aircraft, industrial plants)?
  • Is the property mainly in the sun or in the shade or in a region with a lot of fog?
  • What is the outlook? Do neighbors have a direct view of the property?
  • Are there links to public transport near the property?
  • How cheap is the road connection (local transport / long-distance transport)?
  • How far do you have to go / drive to work, school and daycare?
  • Are doctors, shops and bank branches nearby?
  • There are cultural offers, leisure opportunities, local recreation and

    Excursion areas?

Development and network quality

Discuss with the seller and the municipality whether development measures have already taken place on the property, i.e. whether telephone, electricity, gas, water and sewage lines are already in place. In addition to the municipal administration, information can also be obtained from telecommunications, energy supply companies and the waterworks. Important: Include the development status in the purchase contract - this way you will avoid unnecessary costs afterwards. The condition of the service road and street lighting is also important for building plots in old buildings. If these have to be replaced in the foreseeable future, the residents generally have to bear the costs.

The quality of the data connection is also becoming increasingly important - ideally, the property already has a broadband connection made of glass fiber. High transmission speeds can still be achieved via the television cable. It is best to ask a direct neighbor if he can test the speed of his Internet connection for you.

Checklist for the development of the building plot

  • Is drinking water already connected?
  • How far is the nearest public drinking water line?
  • Is there a sewage connection on the property?
  • How far is the sewage pipe?
  • How deep is the sewage pipe?
  • Is there a connection for remote gas?
  • How far is the gas line?
  • Have electricity lines already been laid?
  • How far are these lines away?
  • Is there a telephone and / or cable connection?
  • Do supply lines run over the property? If yes, which?
  • Are the development and expansion contributions paid?
  • What are the costs?

View the land register entry of the building plot

If there are supply lines or masts on your building plot, these can severely limit the buildability of your property. Inquire about the so-called construction load, ie the "rights of third parties", from the notary who can see the land register in preparation for the contract of sale. In some federal states you can find out about these loads from the list of building loads at the responsible building authority. You are safe to go if no route and route rights are entered and there are no contradictions with regard to ownership. Caution is advised if your building land is close to architectural or natural monuments. Then you should definitely inquire about any legal restrictions.

An extract from the land register also provides information on the activities of previous owners. For example, if there used to be a car repair shop, a gas station or a cleaning facility on the property, there may be leftovers on the property. This also applies to handicraft or production companies or even use as a landfill. The owners of neighboring properties also give you information about the previous use. If in doubt, either withdraw from the purchase or make liability provisions in the purchase contract.

Frau zeigt Paar einen Plan
Frau zeigt Paar einen Plan

If your search for a suitable building plot turns out to be unsuccessful, professionals will help you, for example from the Association of Private Builders.

Photo: Fotolia / Kzenon

The purchase contract and additional costs for the building plot

Once you have found the right building plot and decided to purchase the property, a notary prepares the purchase contract. He checks the entries in the land register and formulates the contract text. During the certification process, he explains the legal risks and their contractual protection. Once all parties have signed, the notary informs the tax office, the responsible expert committee and the land registry. He obtains deletion documents and other legally required permits. In addition to the property price, there are also a number of additional costs:

Mediation: Did you use a broker to find the property? Then it costs you three to six percent brokerage fee - depending on the region.

Notary: In order for the purchase to be legally binding, you need a contract that is certified by the notary. For this service, he charges fees that are based on a defined cost structure. The amount depends not only on the purchase price, but also on the effort that the notary has. You can decide whether you just let him do the certification or, for example, entrust him with the entry in the land register. The entry itself definitely costs additional money.

Financing: If the buyer or builder takes out a loan for his property, there are incidental financing costs. These are, for example, construction time and provision interest and partial payment surcharges or additional costs for ordering the land charge from the notary and entering it in the land register.

Tax and development: When buying, the state demands 3.5 percent real estate transfer tax. Anyone who buys building land also pays real estate transfer tax for the future building if the property is already sold with the planned house. The buyer, on the other hand, only pays the real estate transfer tax if he can freely choose a property developer after the purchase.

Anyone who buys building land must also expect development costs. This includes connection fees for sewers, water, electricity, gas or district heating, cables and telephones. If old buildings are torn down or disturbing trees are felled before construction, you should also take these costs into account. Don't forget building permit fees, electricity and water costs for the construction site and insurance premiums.

The measurement of the building plot: effort and costs

When a suitable building plot has been found and the sales contract has been signed, the surveying engineer steps on the map: he prepares the planning documents and converts them into reality, pegs them on site, sets boundary stones. If you want to divide the property, turn it on mandatory. The specialist will advise you on questions regarding buildability and development plan. The building authorities in some federal states require an official site plan, which the surveying engineer draws up for you before the start of construction. He gives the building contractor building corners and heights. After completion, the professional measures the building for the land registry.

The fees for the surveying services vary depending on the federal state and are usually based on the property value and size. The division and measurement of an area of ​​1, 000 square meters (value: 100 euros per square meter) costs about 1, 320 euros. The building measurement before moving in for a house value under 250, 000 euros costs about 500 euros. You also add VAT and fees.

Vermessungsingenieur
Vermessungsingenieur

Surveying engineers step on the map before construction.

Photo: istock / Tomwang112

This is how a typical measurement process works

In our case study, the builders found a 400 square meter plot of land for a family home. The new building is expected to cost 200, 000 to 250, 000 euros. You hire a surveying engineer to measure the property and measure the building so that it is placed exactly according to the requirements of the approved building application.

Advice: All over Germany, builders can employ a publicly appointed surveying engineer (ÖbVI), except in Bavaria, where offices are surveyed. He clarifies: Which buildings are permitted? What loads are on the property? How much is the property worth? In the case of a follow-up order, the costs are part of the measurement service.

Cost: No follow-up order, 40 to 80 euros an hour

Surveying: The family has the property surveyed again, as some of the boundary stones can no longer be found. If you want to share a building plot, you must also consult the professional. He takes care of documents, misses, marks borders, conducts border negotiations and makes the application for transfer to the property register.

Cost: Between 800 and 1, 500 euros

Site plan: For the building application, the client needs a site plan in which the location and amount of the planned project can be identified. Depending on the construction and the state building regulations, the engineer will prepare an official (certified) or a simple site plan.

Cost: Between 800 and 1, 500 euros

Stakeout: With approval of the building application, the construction phase begins. The first step is the excavation of the excavation pit. The surveying engineer marks the cornerstones of the house with wooden posts (usually voluntary depending on the state).

Cost: Between 300 and 500 euros

Fine stakeout: After the excavation pit has been excavated, the site manager needs exact points of reference in order to construct the building in the correct position. The professional marks important building axes with nails on a so-called batter board. The polisher strings cords over the nails to determine the position of the walls.

Cost: Between 400 and 600 euros

Evidence for the building authority: Depending on the state building code, proof must be provided to the building inspectorate during construction that the building will be constructed in accordance with the permit. Certificates from ÖbVI that the location and height of the shell match the information in the building permit.

Cost: Between 400 and 600 euros

Measurement: It is the duty of the client to have the finished building cadastral calibrated for entry in the property map. The owner hires a publicly appointed surveying engineer (or the land registry).

Cost: Between 800 and 1, 000 euros

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