Table of contents:
- Glass interior doors
- Interior wood doors
- Which door suits you?
- The correct stop direction
- Determine dimensions
- The right framework
- The centerpiece: the door leaf
- Maintain wooden doors
- Clean wood
- Touch up damage
- Soundproof interior doors
- Multifunctional doors
- Special doors
- noise protection
- Soundproofing provisions of the state building regulations
- Tested sound insulation
- Soundproofing classes
- Sound insulation classes of door systems
- Interior doors and their sound insulation
- Climate classes
Video: Interior doors: models and buying advice
There are numerous models of interior doors, and they are no longer limited to their function of separating and connecting rooms. Today, they give the home a personal touch in a wide variety of materials and designs and change the sense of space. Which interior doors suit you? Find out!
Interior doors with glass surfaces guide the sun's rays and light from bright living rooms into dark corridors, make small rooms look larger and allow children or pets to have a look - interior doors made from wood such as pine or spruce complete the apartment in a country house style.
Glass interior doors
Glass doors consist of eight to twelve millimeter thick toughened safety glass (ESG) with chamfered, i.e. beveled edges. ESG is more stable than conventional panes - should it break nonetheless, it crumbles into blunt crumbs instead of sharp pieces. The fittings such as the door handle, lock and hinges are located in holes and recesses directly in the window. Experts distinguish between wooden glass doors with a frieze attached, straight or slightly curved along the lock side and glass frame doors. Glass frame doors can be recognized by two vertical friezes, each on the longitudinal edges, often supplemented by a cross frieze at the top.
Glass doors let light into a room and create a connection between two rooms, even when they are closed.
Photo: living4media / Klazinga, Jansje
Builders and renovators can combine their desired door from a variety of wood types and colors, glass types and designs as well as applications and fittings. For extraordinary color and shape creations, several layers of glass are artistically overlaid in the so-called fusing process, for the wooden edges at the transition to the glass you have the choice between classic corner profiles and round profiles - this is considered more modern. Both models are available with one or two door leaves, the glass surfaces in a timeless design as well as in a modern design, neutral or with applications, matt or plain.
Interior wood doors
Interior doors in the homely tones of pine or spruce wood or in fresh white complement charming furniture and accessories in a country house style. Country house doors can be recognized by their natural colors and clear shapes - and a touch of sensuality and romance.
If you want to customize your door, you can paint it in your desired color.
Photo: living4media / Scoffoni, Anne-Catherine
Wood signals comfort, most builders and renovators choose light woods such as maple and birch, beech and ash. For those who prefer dark tones, oak is a good choice; Cherry and walnut wood turns reddish. Stain and glaze are used to refine natural wood tones from inexpensive types of wood, but leave the original character of the wood visible. White or colored top coats hide grain and knots and can give doors a very individual look. Colored doors enliven and doors with panels or glass inserts let light through from room to room.
A large manufacturer of prefabricated doors analyzed builders and renovators and their wishes. Different age groups were assigned to preferred travel destinations and depending on this, wood species that are native to the respective regions and with which one feels comfortable in one's own four walls. The style experts recommend:
- Solid pine doors for "Best Agers" from 50 who like to travel to Scandinavia
- Solid spruce doors for people of all ages with a love for the mountains
- Cherrywood doors for young families who book club holidays
- Oak doors for creative middle-aged people interested in cultural travel
- Beech wood doors for representatives of the 40-plus generation who enjoy idyllic solitude
- Birch doors for rural residents of all ages who prefer to spend their vacation at home
- Maple doors for young people who (for the time being) sacrifice their vacations to careers and house building
- white and colored lacquered doors for young people with a soft spot for Mediterranean countries
Interior doors with glass surfaces guide the sun's rays and light from bright living rooms into dark hallways, make small rooms look larger and allow children or pets to have a look.
Photo: markiewicz Germany / Tomasz Bubella
Country house doors are available with different light cutouts and decorative equipment, as well as matching entrance doors for the apartment - this creates a harmonious unity between outside and inside. Glass inserts allow light to enter, visually extend wide spaces and give additional brightness. The special color and design of the glass as lead glass in white, yellow or bronze further enhance the living ambience. The size of the glass inserts can be individually designed using different rung frames; continuous glass surfaces are also possible for some door models.
Which door suits you?
Whoever installs new room doors first clarifies style issues: light or dark, natural or lacquered, with an opaque door leaf or decorative glass insert? According to the client's wishes, the woodworker manufactures individual interior doors to measure or supplies prefabricated doors from his extensive range - always tailored to the structural requirements as well as the furnishing style and lifestyle of the residents. Prepare yourself a little for the conversation with the specialist - the quicker and more targeted you will get to your dream doors.
Your first glance is at the surface, the second question is: what should the edge of the door leaf look like? It gives the door leaf additional elegance and exclusivity. There are three options:
- Most builders and renovators opt for the edgy version, which is considered standard equipment.
- Round profiles create a seamless and therefore elegant transition from the door surface to the leaf edge.
- Karnies profiles give the door leaf a special character - in conjunction with rounded edges on the frame (the "door frame"), such doors look like a beautiful piece of furniture.
The correct stop direction
The most carefully selected door quickly becomes a nuisance if it is installed incorrectly: the opened door leaf should pull steps and view into the room instead of locking it out. Plan the direction of the door to fit your needs: whether it should open into the room as usual or exceptionally outwards - for example, because otherwise there is not enough space in the guest toilet. Also consider whether you want to install a "left" or "right" door. This is from the hallway to the side on which the door hangs on the hinges: On the left is where the door hinges (hinges) are on the left and the door handle on the right. The reverse is the case with right-hand doors.
Door left DIN.
Door DIN right.
What dimensions should the frame and door have? Let the specialist in here, he needs three dimensions:
- Construction standard - a grid dimension for heights, widths and thicknesses of components
- Opening dimension - it results from the building standard plus one centimeter
- Construction dimension - it results from the construction standard minus one centimeter
The right framework
The door frame conceals the wall opening on the side and top. A threshold on the floor can, but does not have to be installed: it gives the door a stop and separates different floor coverings from each other - but often creates an unnecessary trip hazard.
There are four types of door frames:
- Block frames are dowelled into the middle of the wall thickness, the reveal is plastered, joints between frame and wall are covered with strips
- Frame frames sit on cemented stone screws or attached dowels in a wall rebate.
- Frame frames cover the reveal from edge to edge. You fix the frame invisibly with metal brackets or mounting foam or visibly with screws in expansion dowels.
- Lining frames completely cover the reveal and encompass it in the form of a U - this protects the edges of the wall.
The door hinges sit on the frame - this is the name of the fittings for screwing or drilling in, which hold the door leaf and make it movable.
The centerpiece: the door leaf
For frame doors, the woodworker produces a all-round frame frieze in which the wood filling is inserted. Variants: Cross frames divide the frieze, glass replaces wood as the material for the filling.
Doors with smooth door leaves made of wood materials are called barrier doors. They are usually manufactured industrially and leave the factory with a surface made of fine wood veneer, laminate panels or finished surface treatment. A wooden frame sits beneath the visible surface, reinforced at the corners - and on the long sides at the height of the hinges and lock.
Instead of solid wood, an inlay fills the frame - the most common are:
- Honeycomb cardboard : rigid cardboard - for doors with low mechanical stress, the doors are light and inexpensive.
- Tubular chipboard strips : Edged pressboard strips with punched holes - for doors that should withstand normal loads. Fullness and weight make the door close more tightly than with a honeycomb core - door panels made of tubular chipboard are considered the "lower middle class".
- Tube chipboard : All-over chipboard with hollowed tubes for medium mechanical stress and better sound insulation. Sheets with tube chips are considered an "upper middle class"
Maintain wooden doors
Deviations in structure and color and growth-related differences in surface and color show that these are real and natural wooden doors - no reason for concern or complaint. White lacquered surfaces sometimes show slight color differences and different degrees of gloss - they occur when basic materials and the effects of light on the building are not uniform. Changing temperatures and changes in air humidity can cause wooden doors to shrink and swell slightly, especially in the haze of kitchens and bathrooms.
Treat doors and frames as carefully as furniture.
- Shield direct sun rays, otherwise the wood will change color.
- Adhesives and solvents attack the surface - spare your doors from stickers and tapes.
- Sharp cleaners and abrasives dull the surface. Remove dust, fingerprints or water stains with a slightly damp, soft cloth or chamois. A mild soapy solution helps against stubborn stains. Do not use abrasive, solvent or caustic cleaners that will destroy the surface forever.
- Do not use furniture polish. Modern surfaces shine constantly and do not have to be “polished”. Polishes with a high wax content or other ingredients rather stick to the open structure of the real wood pores and leave behind an unsightly, greasy surface.
Touch up damage
Despite all caution, there is sometimes a scratch or a print mark on the door leaf or frame. Often you get damaged spots with small tools: The woodworker can recommend materials to repair. Larger damage can be repaired by the woodworker.
Soundproof interior doors
Outside noise cannot always be avoided, but it strains the nerves and is harmful to health. In public buildings as well as in new houses, modern soundproof doors with three-sided permanently elastic rebate seals and height-adjustable floor seals are commonplace and are built in from the start. However, old buildings can be retrofitted with soundproof doors. It is important here that all parts of a door are optimally coordinated with one another - i.e. door leaf and frame, fittings and seals - since the sound searches for paths through the door leaf and frame, through the joints between the door leaf and frame as well as the door leaf and floor. Special seals in soundproof doors cut sound bridges at the transitions. Depending on the door type and equipment, interior doors reduce the sound by 27 to 37 decibels and meet the high requirements of sound insulation classes I to III. High-quality soundproof doors can be equipped for climate classes II and III.
If you also want effective smoke, fire or climate protection, choose from so-called multifunctional doors. Models and fittings are based on the desired functions of the interior door - such as burglar-resistant equipment with security striking plates and reinforced hinges with a hinge pocket. Soundproof doors are available with all common surfaces and the choice of design or color is as diverse as that of conventional interior doors.
Functional doors are selected for special areas of application in private old and new buildings and objects. Your door leaf is built up in layers and contains glued special inserts. They meet the highest requirements for safety and comfort.
- Smoke protection door elements according to DIN 18095 consist of a frame wood doubled on the bottom, on which several layers are mounted: A full-surface aluminum insert or a "stabilizer" prevents the door from deforming, the middle layer from a chipboard, solid chipboard or - for sound insulation according to DIN 4109 - A special sound insulation insert dampens noise, and cover panels made of hardboard with veneer form the visible front and back. An automatically lowerable floor seal insulates drafts and noise, a door closer according to EN 1154 on the upper edge of the door leaf automatically presses the door into the lock each time it is opened.
- Soundproof door elements in accordance with DIN 4109 have an additional frame wood on the lower frame, the door leaf is made up of a stabilizing wood-based panel or a full-surface aluminum insert with double hardwood fiber board against strong climate fluctuations and a middle layer of solid chipboard or special sound insulation insert. Veneered cover boards made of hardboard form the visible front and back. An automatically lowerable floor seal and - depending on the type of door - an additional lip seal with a floor threshold stops drafts and sound waves.
- Burglar-resistant door elements are made of four layers: stabilizer with multiplex reinforcement for good hold against burglary, middle layer made of solid chipboard or special soundproofing insert and front and back made of hardboard. Burglar-resistant door hinges, locks with profile cylinders and striking plates provide additional security.
- Radiation protection door elements have on their frame a middle layer of chipboard or soundproofing insert, on each side a lead insert between 0.5 and 2 millimeters thick on each side and veneered cover plates made of hardboard.
How effectively a ready-to-install soundproof door stops noise depends on the following points:
- Door leaf
- Floor seal
- Sealing to the frame - three-sided lip seal is considered optimal
- the professional and careful assembly of the door leaf and frame - otherwise Schall will find side paths
- Construction of the door leaf - construction of various hard and soft layers that reflect and absorb sound
- Durability of materials in different climates
In addition to all standard door dimensions, numerous special formats are available. There is an extensive selection of real wood veneers, decors and laminate surfaces or special laminates for the door surfaces. On request, they are also available as style, trend or design doors - matched to other living room doors. Door edges with round or caries profiles also give soundproof doors additional elegance.
Soundproofing provisions of the state building regulations
Every decibel that does not penetrate walls, windows or doors improves health and well-being. The state building regulations (LBO) contain the demand for "adequate" sound insulation for all structures that are erected, modified or used differently than before. The standard DIN 4109 applies in all federal states as a technical building regulation, it specifies sound insulation dimensions for different components - such as ceilings, stairs, windows and doors.
Tested sound insulation
There is no obligation, but some manufacturers voluntarily name the sound insulation index Rw of their doors - builders learn how effectively the inner door actually brakes airborne noise. A well-insulated door leaf and the right seal in the rebate and on the floor are half the battle. An offset of both seals reduces sound insulation, so they must be on one level. The required Rw values depend on the construction project, the "sound insulation classes for doors" according to the VDI 3728 guideline provide an indication for doors.
- SK 1: Doors leading from hallways or stairwells into hallways and hallways of apartments or work rooms.
- SK 2: Doors between classrooms or similar rooms and corridors as well as for hotels and accommodation.
- SK 3: Doors leading from hallways or stairwells directly into living rooms and for treatment rooms in medical practices.
Sound insulation classes of door systems
|Sound insulation class||Sound reduction index Rw in decibels||Rw, P (laboratory test value)||Rw (adjacent components)||Installation conditions|
|1||25-29||at least 32||at least 35|
|2nd||30-34||at least 37||at least 40||Connection joints cleaned or sealed|
|3rd||35-39||at least 42||at least 45||like class 2, but also fully backfilled frames|
Interior doors and their sound insulation
In practice, the following values are used:
- Conventional room door: 15 to 25 decibels of sound insulation
- Heavy single door: 25 to 30 decibels of sound insulation
- Independent double door: 30 to 45 decibels of sound insulation
- Soundproof door: 30 to 40 decibels soundproofing
- Particularly good sound-insulating door: 40 to 45 decibels of sound insulation
- Acoustic steel sheet door: 40 to 45 decibels of acoustic insulation
Doors often separate areas with different humidity and temperature - the door leaf or frame may warp. Experts assign doors to three climate classes - depending on the “hygrothermal stress” on the door leaves.
- Climate class I: The door constructions are usually sufficient for interior apartment doors. They remain dimensionally stable if a temperature difference of five degrees is measured between the warm and cold side and the air behind the door is 20 percent more humid than before.
- Climate class II: The doors remain dimensionally stable with temperature differences of ten degrees and humidity differences of 35 percent. Apartment doors in heated hallways or stairwells and practice doors should belong to climate class II.
- Climate class III: apartment entrance doors or cellar exit doors in unheated hallways or stairwells and door leaves of house entrance doors are exposed to high temperature and relative humidity differences, they should correspond to class III. They resist temperature differences of up to 20 degrees (outside and inside) and differences in humidity of 50 percent.
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